The Calling Weber argues that the Reformation was not the result of historical necessity as Marx arguedand the capitalistic spirit not merely the result of the Reformation and its effects.
According to a widely held view, he was the founder of the modern way of conceptualizing society and thus the modern social sciences.
His major interest was the process of rationalization, which characterizes Western civilizationwhat he called the "demystification of the world.
It also led him to the study of bureaucracy; all of the world's major religions; and capitalism, which he viewed as a productof the Protestant ethic.
With his contemporary, the French sociologist Emile Durkheimthey seem not to have known each other's workhe created modern sociology. Parsons concluded that these four scholars, coming from contrasting backgrounds and from four different countries, converged, without their knowing of the others, on a common theoretical and methodological position that he called "the voluntaristic theory of action.
Lloyd Warner, and the psychologists Gordon W.
Allport and Henry A. Murray, to define social, cultural, and personality systems as the three main interpenetrative types of action organization.
He is widely known for his use of four pattern variables for characterizing social relationships:The Protestant ethic — a moral code stressing hard work, rigorous self-discipline, and the organization of one's life in the service of God — was made famous by sociologist and political economist Max Weber/5(6).
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history that emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
Weber argued that the protestant ethic is closely associated with the spirit of capitalism. In order to bring out this inter-relationship, Weber constructed ideal types of .
The term Protestant ethic was invented by the German sociologist Max Weber and used in the title of his classic book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (). He concluded that Calvinism instilled strong values of hard work, thrift, and efficiency.
As Tawney put it, "The Protestant ethic, with its insistence on hard work, thrift, etc., had contributed to the rise of capitalism, but at the same time Protestantism itself was being influenced by an increasingly capitalistic society.".
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is Max Weber’s most important work and, since its publication in , has been widely considered the most important sociological study of the twentieth century/5().