Protein structure[ edit ] The first sequences of keratins were determined by Hanukoglu and Fuchs. Fibrous keratin molecules supercoil to form a very stable, left-handed superhelical motif to multimerise, forming filaments consisting of multiple copies of the keratin monomer. The connective tissue protein elastin also has a high percentage of both glycine and alanine.
With a larger dictionary we would expect to find multiple lexemes listed for each index entry. For instance, the input might be a set of files, each containing a single column of word frequency data.
The required output might be a two-dimensional table in which the original columns appear as rows. In such cases we populate an internal data structure by filling up one column at a time, then read off the data one row Siemens simple structure not a time as we write data to the output file. In the most vexing cases, the source and target formats have slightly different coverage of the domain, and information is unavoidably lost when translating between them.
If the CSV file was later modified, it would be a labor-intensive process to inject the changes into the original Toolbox files. A partial solution to this "round-tripping" problem is to associate explicit identifiers each linguistic object, and to propagate the identifiers with the objects.
At a minimum, a corpus will typically contain at least a sequence of sound or orthographic symbols. At the other end of the spectrum, a corpus could contain a large amount of information about the syntactic structure, morphology, prosody, and semantic content of every sentence, plus annotation of discourse relations or dialogue acts.
These extra layers of annotation may be just what someone needs for performing a particular data analysis task. For example, it may be much easier to find a given linguistic pattern if we can search for specific syntactic structures; and it may be easier to categorize a linguistic pattern if every word has been tagged with its sense.
Here are some commonly provided annotation layers: The orthographic form of text does not unambiguously identify its tokens. A tokenized and normalized version, in addition to the conventional orthographic version, may be a very convenient resource. As we saw in 3sentence segmentation can be more difficult than it seems.
Some corpora therefore use explicit annotations to mark sentence segmentation. Paragraphs and other structural elements headings, chapters, etc.
The syntactic category of each word in a document. A tree structure showing the constituent structure of a sentence. Named entity and coreference annotations, semantic role labels. However, two general classes of annotation representation should be distinguished.
Inline annotation modifies the original document by inserting special symbols or control sequences that carry the annotated information. In contrast, standoff annotation does not modify the original document, but instead creates a new file that adds annotation information using pointers that reference the original document.
We would want to be sure that the tokenization itself was not subject to change, since it would cause such references to break silently. However, the cutting edge of NLP research depends on new kinds of annotations, which by definition are not widely supported.
In general, adequate tools for creation, publication and use of linguistic data are not widely available. Most projects must develop their own set of tools for internal use, which is no help to others who lack the necessary resources.
Furthermore, we do not have adequate, generally-accepted standards for expressing the structure and content of corpora. Without such standards, general-purpose tools are impossible — though at the same time, without available tools, adequate standards are unlikely to be developed, used and accepted.
One response to this situation has been to forge ahead with developing a generic format which is sufficiently expressive to capture a wide variety of annotation types see 8 for examples.
The challenge for NLP is to write programs that cope with the generality of such formats. For example, if the programming task involves tree data, and the file format permits arbitrary directed graphs, then input data must be validated to check for tree properties such as rootedness, connectedness, and acyclicity.
If the input files contain other layers of annotation, the program would need to know how to ignore them when the data was loaded, but not invalidate or obliterate those layers when the tree data was saved back to the file.
Another response has been to write one-off scripts to manipulate corpus formats; such scripts litter the filespaces of many NLP researchers.
NLTK's corpus readers are a more systematic approach, founded on the premise that the work of parsing a corpus format should only be done once per programming language.Case Study10 Siemens’ Simple Structure–Not There is perhaps no tougher task for an executive than to restructure a European organization.
Ask former Siemens CEO Klaus Kleinfeld. Siemens, with 77 billion Euros in revenue in , some , employees, and branches in countries, is one of the largest electronics companies in the world.
A review of Siemens SIMATIC Step 7 Lite programming software. The Editor. Much of the editor is like its big sister STEP 7. One noticeable part thatâ€™s â€œmissing in actionâ€ is the detail view that gives quick access to info, cross reference, address info, etc.
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