The term reflected the combination of outward wealth and dazzle with inner corruption and poverty. They stress greed, scandals, and corruption of the Gilded Age.
The population of the United States more than doubled during this period. In its report on the census the Bureau of the Census declared the frontier closed. Most of the economic growth was concentrated in the Northeast, Midwest, and plains states.
The South remained largely agricultural, its total industrial production totaling about half that of New York State. For several decades prior to the Civil Warthe North was forced to delay or compromise several of its national economic policy objectives due to Southern opposition and the strong position the Southern states held in the Senate.
As soon as the Southern states seceded Congress began enacting this delayed agenda.
The Morrill Tariff of raised rates to 20 percent on average, ending more than 30 years of declining tariffs. Funding for three transcontinental railroads was enacted in the Transcontinental Railroad Act. The Morrill Land Grant Act established agricultural and mechanical colleges by allotting each state that remained in the Union 30, acres of land for each member of Congress.
The Homestead Act provided acres a quarter section in western territories free to anyone who settled on it for five years and declared their intention to become a citizen.
Each of these policies profoundly shaped the development of the U. The American Civil War devastated the South. Confederate bonds and currency became worthless, depriving the region of a great proportion of its wealth.
There was little capital available in the South to finance reconstruction. The sharecrop system that had replaced slavery had few incentives for innovation and the region remained capital poor and population growth was slow.
The South failed to attract large numbers of immigrants because of limited opportunities. Its slowly growing population did not create a demand for expanded infrastructure, one of the factors driving the rapid expansion of the national economy outside the former Confederate states.
For at least two generations after the American Civil War the South remained predominantly agricultural and largely outside the industrial expansion of the national economy. One exception was the development of the iron and steel industry around Birmingham, Alabama.
Northern control of Congress after the War led to ever higher tariffs, reaching an average of 57 percent with the Dingle Tariff of These rates remained in effect until Behind the protective wall of these tariffs U.
The United States was the largest free trade market in the world. A large part of the industrial expansion during the post Civil War years was based on connecting the industrial northeast with the farm and grazing areas of the Midwest and Plains states and completing the transcontinental railroads.
Railroad mileage in the United States doubled between and and increased by an additional 50 percent between and Transported freight increased from 2. The iron and steel industry was one direct beneficiary of the expansion of the railroad system.
Steel production increased from 19, long tons in tolong tons in and 1, in In the United States was second to Great Britain in pig iron production.
By the U. Carnegie Steel alone produced more than the British. The expansion of iron and steel production led to comparable increases in iron and coal mining.
An important part of the tremendous economic growth following the Civil War was innovation. The number of patents issued by the Patent Office increased steadily. In the agency issued patents, while 1, were issued in and 7, in After the Civil War the rate of innovation increased tremendously.
At least 15, patents were issued annually during this period and 45, patents were issued in By roughly one-sixth of all capital investments in United States were in the railroads. The railroads powered the industrial economy. They consumed the majority of iron and steel produced in the United States before From the era of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, the United States underwent an economic transformation marked by the maturing of the industrial economy, the rapid expansion of big business, the development of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and industrial conflict.
History of the United States Industrialization and reform () The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 's continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War. Immigration to the United States is the international movement of non-U.S.
nationals in order to reside permanently in the country. Lawful immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the U.S. history.
Because the United States is a settler colonial society, all Americans, with the exception of the small percent of Native Americans, can trace. Is the United States “a nation of immigrants,” a “land of opportunity,” and refuge for the world’s persecuted and poor?
Is the country made stronger by its ability to welcome and absorb people from around the world? The reason for this was not only the number of inventions inventors had created in the U.S., which included the light bulb, generators, and electric motors.
But also because the U.S. had huge, standardized power grids that were widespread by this time.