Essays on various subjects. The Art Of Politics Politics has been regarded by the people as corrupted and filthy since the dawn of man. However, people tend to be inspired more from Palto, because his leadership theory is what people have idealized throughout time. Unfortunately the perfect is not always the best and I believe that for a leader being realistic and having a pragmatic approach towards life is much more important than living in an idealistic world.
Persuasive Socially skilled McCall and Lombardowhich expanded on the trait theory, argued that a leader is made or broken based on emotional stability, the ability to admit faults and errors, intellectual strength and having refined interpersonal skills and relations .
The most immediate observation was charisma; Hitler was electrifying. A Study of the Popular Mind. The iniquity of Hitler did not negate the fact that he was a "great" man in the sense of standing far above the others. Certainly, in modern times, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of anyone more vile.
From this thinking emerged the formalization of Trait Theory of Stogdill in with his Handbook of Leadership. In he said that leaders did not have traits that were unique to leaders. This followed much research during the previous two decades that had suggested the same.
However, research methods changed and as a result, Stogdill came to his latter view. The s saw an emergence of behavioralism, the major proponent being B. Skinner and his view that a person's behavior could be modified.
Psychoanalysis was riding high as well, where the inner mind of a person could be probed by "lying on the couch" and pouring out accounts of past experiences.
Albeit crude, it was possible to utilize behaviorally-oriented techniques to manage traits. Here, a person could be transformed from an adherent to capitalism to communism surely cognizant of the Stalinist mode. It was in this decade that the mother-daughter team of Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers created a personality trait test with their name which has subsequently evolved into a very sophisticated personality testing instrument often is used for assessing how suited a person was to certain types of work.
Carl Jung, a famous psychologist, held that there is a collective consciousness in which is found models or archetypes, of human personality traits.
It was from this that Myers-Briggs derived their instrument to assess 16 traits. Scientists, for example, are curious, intelligent and detail-oriented. An accountant is also detail-oriented and is organized and would typically prefer routines.
Architects are creative, intelligent and detailed-oriented. Some of these persons are more orientated towards leadership, and others prefer to serve.
Critique One can question the originality of the basic trait theory, as it is similar to the "Great man theory", only the "Trait Theory" enumerates specific qualities a leader should possess.
We see other examples of the assertion that traits are paramount, if not critical, to qualify a person to be a leader, a prominent example being the Boy Scouts.
Much before that time, Machiavelli stated, " I say that all men when they are spoken of and chiefly princes for being more highly-placed, are remarkable for some of those qualities which bring them either blame or praise Sometimes it is beneficial to be vicious and uncompromising and if an organization's survival is at stake, according to Machiavelli such characteristics are necessary, as in "We have not seen great things done in our time except by those who have been considered mean; the rest have failed.
He also told us of context and relativity of traits by saying, " What it takes for a leader to be ethical narrows the list of traits.
Machiavelli recounted that up to his time there were so many examples of cruelty, terror and other traits that reflected the darker side of humanity have allowed successful rule.
Since his time, there have been even more egregious examples and no reason has been shown that would lead one to expect that the situation will change. Trait theory, it would be safe to say, needs qualification in listing not only what traits are successful, but traits that are desirous or not and in what contexts.
It is questionable that people have "innate traits". Personality, at least according to Gordon Alport, is an outgrowth of a basic value system, is dynamic, and traits are a result of conscious motivations, surely the nature of which also are dynamic.
Traits emerge from a personality. A person has functional autonomy and is not caged by traits, which Trait Theory says are innate. This was a source of Alport's disagreement with Freud, who subscribed to that innateness.
Alport's use of the word "trait" brought opprobrium from situationalists context theorists who thought that the psychologist was referring to innate qualities . Trait theory sets forth numerous characteristics but these are very general and contextual, but further, to be of any value they should be measurable.
What is "socially skilled", "clever", or "persistent"?
We can use these in everyday speech but we do so within the context of a specific conversation. In addition, in what categories of endeavor are they critical? Being capable in organizing work crews is not the same ability to handle supply logistics.of, like, or befitting Machiavelli.
being or acting in accordance with the principles of government analyzed in Machiavelli's The Prince, in which political expediency is placed above morality and the use of craft and deceit to maintain the authority and carry out the policies of a ruler is described.
Machiavelli gives the example of Dominican Friar Girolamo Savanarola, who blindly followed the Christian morals without a prudent approach to leadership that .
In this book Ledeen attempts to persuade the reader that the "Machiavellian" mentality is how we should approach leadership roles in all aspects of life.
However, Ledeen, like other neo-conservatives, misses Machiavelli's point entirely. Learn leadership theories with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of leadership theories flashcards on Quizlet.
Transformational leadership is a discourse that trains us to see leadership in new ways. Critical postmodern is the nexus of critical theory, postcolonialism, critical pedagogy and postmodern theory (Tamara, Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science). Feb 15, · If you think Machiavelli was all about materialism and influence, you're wrong.
His remarkable insights on leadership, entrepreneurs, and life .