These conventions — all of which are described by the United Nations as part of its panoply of anti-terrorist measures — share three principal characteristics:
Spear phishing[ edit ] Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. They attacked more than 1, Google accounts and implemented the accounts-google.
The attachment or link within the email is replaced with a malicious version and then sent from an email address spoofed to appear to come from the original sender. It may claim to be a resend of the original or an updated version to the original.
This technique could be used to pivot indirectly from a previously infected machine and gain a foothold on another machine, by exploiting the social trust associated with the inferred connection due to both parties receiving the original email.
Whaling[ edit ] The term whaling has been coined for spear phishing attacks directed specifically at senior executives and other high-profile targets.
The content of a whaling attack email may be an executive issue such as a subpoena or customer complaint.
In the following example URL, http: Many desktop email clients and web browsers will show a link's target URL in the status bar while hovering the mouse over it. This behavior, however, may in some circumstances be overridden by the phisher. Internationalized domain names IDN can be exploited via IDN spoofing  or homograph attacks to create web addresses visually identical to a legitimate site, that lead instead to malicious version.
Phishers have taken advantage of a similar risk, using open URL redirectors on the websites of trusted organizations to disguise malicious URLs with a trusted domain. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it very difficult to spot without specialist knowledge.
Such a flaw was used in against PayPal. These look much like the real website, but hide the text in a multimedia object. The flaw is usually masqueraded under a log-in popup based on an affected site's domain. This often makes use of open redirect and XSS vulnerabilities in the third-party application websites.
For covert redirect, an attacker could use a real website instead by corrupting the site with a malicious login popup dialogue box. This makes covert redirect different from others. A popup window from Facebook will ask whether the victim would like to authorize the app.
If the victim chooses to authorize the app, a "token" will be sent to the attacker and the victim's personal sensitive information could be exposed.
These information may include the email address, birth date, contacts, and work history. This could potentially further compromise the victim. For example, a malicious attachment might masquerade as a benign linked Google doc.
Messages that claimed to be from a bank told users to dial a phone number regarding problems with their bank accounts.
Vishing voice phishing sometimes uses fake caller-ID data to give the appearance that calls come from a trusted organization. This method silently redirects the user to the affected site. This technique operates in reverse to most phishing techniques in that it does not directly take the user to the fraudulent site, but instead loads the fake page in one of the browser's open tabs.
Evil twins is a phishing technique that is hard to detect. A phisher creates a fake wireless network that looks similar to a legitimate public network that may be found in public places such as airports, hotels or coffee shops. AOL enforcement would detect words used in AOL chat rooms to suspend the accounts individuals involved in counterfeiting software and trading stolen accounts.
Since the symbol looked like a fish, and due to the popularity of phreaking it was adapted as 'Phishing'. AOHellreleased in earlywas a program designed to hack AOL users by allowing the attacker to pose as an AOL staff member, and send an instant message to a potential victim, asking him to reveal his password.
Once the victim had revealed the password, the attacker could access and use the victim's account for fraudulent purposes. Phishing became so prevalent on AOL that they added a line on all instant messages stating: In lateAOL crackers resorted to phishing for legitimate accounts after AOL brought in measures in late to prevent using fake, algorithmically generated credit card numbers to open accounts.
The shutting down of the warez scene on AOL caused most phishers to leave the service. Specializations emerged on a global scale that provided phishing software for payment thereby outsourcing riskwhich were assembled and implemented into phishing campaigns by organized gangs.
Emails, supposedly from the Internal Revenue Servicehave been used to glean sensitive data from U.Phishing (Fishing for some dank seaweed) is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
Typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, it often directs users to enter personal information at a fake website, the look and feel of which are identical. Apr 21, · Terrorism is not a war in the traditional or constitutional sense.
Terrorism is a method of fighting and it requires innovative tactical and strategic responses. There is a need to distinguish between the nature of terrorism, the character of terrorism, and the causes to which terrorism has been yoked through the centuries.
Before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September , the subject of terrorism did not loom large in philosophical discussion. Philosophical literature in English amounted to a few monographs and a single collection of papers devoted solely, or largely, to questions to do with terrorism.
‘Terrorism’ poses many questions, vicissitudes and a series of complexities. It is no longer a problem of specific countries but an issue involving a number of international aspects.
In the context of the European Union, the fundamental text on this issue is the European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy, which was adopted in November and focusses on four key areas: prevention, protection, pursuit and response.