The first measured 24 hour production from Bakken wells is a very good predictor of the future production of that well. And it has also been confirmed that new wells with higher well numbers are producing a lot less.
Thermal power station Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on the planet, and widely used as the source of energy in thermal power stations. It is a relatively cheap fuel, with some of the largest deposits in regions that are stable politically, such as ChinaIndia and the United States.
This contrasts with natural gasthe largest deposits of which are located in Russia, Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan and the US. Solid coal cannot directly replace natural gas or petroleum in most applications, petroleum is mostly used for transportation and the natural gas not used for electricity generation is used for spacewater and industrial heating.
Coal can be converted to gas or liquid fuel, but the efficiencies and economics of such processes can make them unfeasible. Coal is an impure fuel and produces more greenhouse gas and pollution than an equivalent amount of petroleum or natural gas. Coal is delivered by highway truckrailbargecollier ship or coal slurry pipeline.
Some plants are even built near coal mines and coal is delivered by conveyors. A large coal train called a "unit train" may be 2 kilometres 1. A large plant under full load requires at least one coal delivery this size every day.
Plants may get as many as three to five trains a day, especially in "peak season" during the hottest summer or coldest winter months depending on local climate when power consumption is high. A large thermal power plant such as the now decommissioned NanticokeOntario stores several million metric tons of coal for winter use when the lakes are frozen.
Modern unloaders use rotary dump devices, which eliminate problems with coal freezing in bottom dump cars.
The unloader includes a train positioner arm that pulls the entire train to position each car over a coal hopper.
The dumper clamps an individual car against a platform that swivels the car upside down to dump the coal. Swiveling couplers enable the entire operation to occur while the cars are still coupled together. Unloading a unit train takes about three hours.
Shorter trains may use railcars with an "air-dump", which relies on air pressure from the engine plus a "hot shoe" on each car. This "hot shoe" when it comes into contact with a "hot rail" at the unloading trestle, shoots an electric charge through the air dump apparatus and causes the doors on the bottom of the car to open, dumping the coal through the opening in the trestle.
Unloading one of these trains takes anywhere from an hour to an hour and a half. Older unloaders may still use manually operated bottom-dump rail cars and a "shaker" attached to dump the coal. Generating stations adjacent to a mine may receive coal by conveyor belt or massive diesel-electric -drive trucks.
A collier cargo ship carrying coal may hold 40, long tons of coal and takes several days to unload. Some colliers carry their own conveying equipment to unload their own bunkers; others depend on equipment at the plant.
For transporting coal in calmer waters, such as rivers and lakes, flat-bottomed barges are often used. Barges are usually unpowered and must be moved by tugboats or towboats. For start up or auxiliary purposes, the plant may use fuel oil as well.In all likelihood, demand for fossil fuels will ultimately peak and then begin to fall – the big question is when.
Just as the Stone Age did not end because we ran out of stones, the Fossil Fuel Age will not end because we will run out of fossil fuels. Reserves will likely stay in the ground, far after societies have moved on from them. M E A T Now, It’s Not Personal!
But like it or not, meat-eating is becoming a problem for everyone on the planet. Ask people where they’d rank meat-eating as an issue of concern to the general public, and most might be surprised to hear you suggest that it’s an issue at all.
Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of plants and animals that died hundreds of millions of years ago, buried and transformed by heat and pressure. Since these fuels require millions of years to form, for human purposes, the supply of fossil fuels on Earth is effectively fixed.
Aug 17, · In addition to making these new sources economical, high prices justify going into existing half-depleted wells and stimulating them to eke out more oil.
" The concern about pollution caused by burning fossil fuels is rapidly being replaced by the fear of running out of these non-renewable gifts." This means that fossil fuels will not last forever so that makes biofuels a good thing because we will have it forever.
Rolling blackouts, skyrocketing costs coming if enviros prevail. Enlarged. Enlarged. Icecap has worked pro-bono in teams of scientists, econometricians, lawyers and policymakers (here and here for example) trying to prevent an assault on our nation’s energy by radical environmental groups and politicians who benefit from pushing not ready for primetime energy sources.