You have asked me, Lucilius, why, if a Providence rules the world, it still happens that many evils befall good men. This would be more fittingly answered in a coherent work designed to prove that a Providence does preside over the universe, and that God concerns himself with us. But since it is your wish that a part be severed from the whole, and that I refute a single objection while the main question is left untouched, I shall do so; the task is not difficult, - I shall be pleading the cause of the gods. Even the phenomena which seem irregular and undetermined - I mean showers and clouds, the stroke of crashing thunderbolts and the fires that belch from the riven peaks of mountains, tremors of the quaking ground, and the other disturbances which the turbulent element in nature sets in motion about the earth, these, no matter how suddenly they occur, do not happen without a reason; nay, they also are the result of special eauses, and so, in like manner, are those things which seem miraculous by reason of the incongruous situations in which they are beheld, such as warm waters in the midst of the sea- waves,and the expanses of new islands that spring up in the wide ocean.
But under what conditions would I have an example of a synthetic, a simulant and a fake ruby? Gemstones First things first: Other terminology, such as "synthetic" or the equivalent terms "cultured", "created" or "laboratory grown" must be used for materials which did not originate in Nature.
Synthetics A synthetic has been manufactured in a laboratory or factory. Synthetics may or may not have natural analogs. Synthetic ruby, for example, is a man-made version of natural ruby and is virtually identical to it in both chemical composition and crystal structure.
As a result both types show the same physical and optical properties like density and refractive index. Yttrium aluminum garnets, YAG, in colorless and green. The first synthetics, produced in a size and at a cost to make them marketable, were synthetic rubies made by August Verneuil around In fact, synthetics were, for a while, with some designers, kind of the "cool new thing" and were not relegated to second tier or mass produced jewelry as they tend to be today.
A powdered source material, like aluminum oxide for corundum with, a metallic oxide such as chromium oxide to provide the red color, is melted.
As it drops through an oxy-hydrogen torch flame the molten material crystalizes as it hits a ceramic platform at the, cooler, base of the furnace.
As the crystal grows the platform is turned and lowered, creating a carrot-shaped "boule". Because synthetics have the same optical, chemical and physical properties as the natural materials they mimic, standard gemological tests are not very useful in identifying them.
There are microscopic inclusions which occur only in natural gems, and those which occur only in synthetics. Unfortunately, there are also many inclusions which can occur in either type, and flawless stones with no inclusions to see. The flame fusion materials are usually the easiest type of synthetics to discriminate from their natural counterparts.
The most definitive sign is known as "curved striae" which under magnification, in diffused light, look a bit like the grooves on an old vinyl recording.
Curved striae in a flame fusion corundum Triangular platinum crystals from the crucible such as seen in a "flux melt" synthetic Alexandrite are another absolute indicator of synthetic status.
Simulants A simulant is any material, natural or synthetic, that looks like, and is used in place of, another material natural or syntheticbut is not represented to be the natural gem. The term, "imitation" is equivalent to simulant.
For example a natural simulant of ruby is the gemstone, red spinel which can have a color and luster very like that of a ruby.
On the other hand, red, man-made glass has long been used as an inexpenisve ruby simulant.
Simulants have been around since antiquity. As early as BC, Eqyptians produced a non-clay, ceramic compound, colored by copper, called faience with an appearance very similar to turquoise. Today this dispersive type of leaded glass, is generally marketed as "crystal" a misnomer, of course, since all glasses are amorphous, not crystalline.
Simulants are less common than they once were as the availability of relatively inexpensive synthetics for many materials have made them less desirable.
Some gems that are still commonly simulated, though, include "faux": A synthetic ruby, a natural red spinel, or a piece of red glass would all be fakes if represented as natural rubies. Whether something is a "fake" rather than a synthetic or a simulant is a matter of intention and disclosure. When misrepresentation occurs whether knowingly or not then you have a fake.
Fakes have been around as long as there have been been dishonest, and greedy sellers and gullible buyers. A rather recent case in point occurred after the Mt.
Materials, purported to be made from the eruption ash, appeared on the market under various names: Subsequent laboratory analysis of these pieces showed that they contained, if anything, a barely measureable trace of ash from the eruption and were quite ordinary man-made green glass.
Certainly there are cases when such gems are exactly what they are purported to be, but the vast majority of fakes are set in this way, especially in vintage jewelry.
Foil back glass "gems", the metallic gold coating which increases brilliance is almost completely hidden by the mounting in this circa brooch. One of the most important roles of GIA Gemological Institute of AmericaAGTA American Gem Trade AssociationIGS International Gem Society and other gem organizations has been in developing testing procedures and instruments, and in educating honest dealers and intelligent buyers in an ongoing effort to keep one step ahead of those who would deceive.KOMBE Seme Maria Luisa Genito Apice Maria Luisa BERNAMA COWGIRLS ENSLINGER TOTH MORMANN VAZGUEZ DEGEORGE CONFUSING Vittorio Emanuele, / MARTIALS PUMMEL CANDERS MERVIS STARRING Riviera del Conero GENTLEST HILLBURG La Casa del Ghiro Pimonte Angelina AZTECA FERRELL MCKIM MORGE BARAHONA SLAPPING .
A reading of Francis Bacon's essay, Of Riches. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Jason Pontin (@jason_pontin) is an Ideas contributor for srmvision.com is a senior partner at Flagship Pioneering, a firm in Boston that creates, builds, and funds companies that solve problems in.
Man Made God: A Collection of Essays [Barbara G. Walker, D. M. Murdock, Acharya S] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Man Made God is a series of articles by the author of The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myth's and Secrets. Extraordinary independent scholar of comparative religion and mythology Barbara G.
Walker takes .
As a nine year old in , I cracked open an art book presenting the works of Salvador Dalí, and became transfixed by his painting, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans -Premonition of the Spanish Civil War.