In the 15th century, however, the letter j barely existed.
Nowhere in the world has pottery assumed such importance as in China, and the influence of Chinese porcelain on later European pottery has been profound.
The cultural setting of Southeast Asian arts Southeast Asia has been the crossroads of many peoples who have been contending against each other for centuries. At one time they occupied the eastern half of mainland Southeast Asia, but later they were pushed toward the south and the islands by the Austroasiatics.
At present, peoples of Austronesian origin occupy Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The Mon were at one time dominant, but they lost their ethnic identity in the 18th century and became absorbed by the Burmese and the Tai; only a few thousand Mon are now found living near the Myanmar-Thailand border.
The Khmer from the 9th century to the 15th built a great empire, but much of its territory was lost to its neighbours so that only the small kingdom of Cambodia remains today.
The Viet-Muong now occupy Vietnam.
A Tibeto-Burmese tribe, the Pyufounded an empire of city-kingdoms in the Irrawaddy Valley in the early centuries of the Common Era, but the Pyu disappeared, and the Burmese, taking the leadership, founded their kingdom of Pagan and have occupied Burma now Myanmar up to the present day.
External influences In Southeast Asia, winds of change often came as storms. Indian commerce expanded into Southeast Asia in the early centuries of the Common Era and, in spite of its peaceful nature, caused revolutionary changes in the life and culture of the peoples of the region.
The Indians would sojourn in the region in small numbers for two or three monsoons only. The success of their commercial venture and the safety of their persons depended entirely on the goodwill of the inhabitants. The Indians brought new ideas and new art traditions.
Since these ideas had some affinity with indigenous ideas and art forms, the natives accepted them but were not overwhelmed by an influx of new traditions.
The Hindu and Buddhist cultures of the Indians made a tremendous impact and came to form the second layer of culture in Southeast Asia, but the first layer of native ideas and traditions has remained strong to the present day.
Changes often came to Southeast Asia, usually because it possessed a commodity that was in great demand by the rest of the world. The Indians came because they were looking for fresh sources of gold after the Roman imperial source had run dry.
In the 15th, 16th, and the 17th centuries, insular Southeast Asia attracted Islamic merchants from India and farther west and later the Portuguese and the Dutch as a rich source of spices.
As with the Hindu and Buddhist merchants of the past, the Islamic traders came not as missionaries, though they did spread their religion in the region.
The Portuguese came as conquerors and as militant missionaries of their Roman Catholic form of Christianity, and, for those reasons, their cultural traditions were unacceptable to the natives.
In the 17th century the Dutch came as conquerors and colonists for whom the attraction was first spices and then coffee, rubber, and petroleum.
Since mainland Southeast Asia produced no spices for export, it was less vulnerable to the navies of Portugal and The Netherlands, so the region was not greatly affected by the Muslims, Portuguese, and Dutch.
In the 19th century, Britain and France became interested in mainland Southeast Asia as the back door to China and sought to possess it as a colony.
By the end of the 19th century, Burma had fallen to Britain, Siam was allowed to retain its independence only with the tacit permission of the two powers, and the rest had fallen to France.Jump to navigation Jump to search This article's lead In France, by the second half of the 15th century, Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats.
Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small-scale artisans. The Khmer from the 9th century to the 15th built a great empire, but much of its territory was lost to its neighbours so that only the small kingdom of Cambodia remains today.
The Viet-Muong now occupy Vietnam. Abstract: In recent years the Book of Mormon has been compared to pseudo-biblical texts like Gilbert J. Hunt's The Late War (). Some have found strong. The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years to In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, .
Nov 21, · In the 15th century, however, the letter j barely existed. Many European languages used a soft “j” (similar to a “y” as in “you”) and it was written as an “i” preceding another vowel, as in IOANNES (Johannes) and IVLIVS (Julius).
By the dawn of the sixteenth century, the ancient art of navigation had begun to develop rapidly in response to oceanic explorers who needed to find their positions without landmarks, to determine the locations of their discoveries, and to establish routes between the new-found lands and home.