Tanpinar belongs to a generation of Turkish authors that grew up in the Ottoman Empire and lived through the first decades of modern Turkey with its Kemalist reforms that deeply affected every aspect of life. The novel is the first-person narrative of the life of Hayri Irdal, a loafer, a man who grows up in rather poor circumstances and with limited school education, but who shows at an early age a talent in repairing watches, a craft he learns at the workshop of Nuri Efendi, whose thoughts about the role of time and about how important it is to make good use of it will play an important role later in the novel. We see Hayri Irdal being a rather weak person, with a problematic second marriage after his first wife died early and with children that are not really close to him. He is spending most of his time with a strange circle of friends, alchemists, spiritualists, fortune seekers, project makers.
V Praze, dne Charles Richard Johnson, trope, typology, committed literature, tendentious art, autonomous art, essentialism, assimilationism, nationalism, exegesis, exhortation, allusion, intertextuality, Panopticon, pharmakon, black agency, social uplift.
The historical introduction is an attempt to reevaluate the tradition of ideological self-policing in African American literature.
Its central thesis resides in the claim that African American literature and its critical reception has still retained some of this ideological template, in a manner and degree that throws it out of sync with the mainstream trajectory of American literature.
This lingering anachronism cannot be legitimately attributed to a single causative circumstance, yet one of the more obvious explanations for this residual trend is the living memory of overt discriminatory practices in many parts of the United States, which is why the centrifugal literary discourses of assimilationism and protest fiction are still very vibrant.
This simple argument alone provides a sufficient basis for contextualizing and understanding the thesis that ideological writing still inadvertently manages to find its way into African American fictional pursuits. This is also underscored by the observable fact that even the critical reception of African American writing is often guided by extraliterary criteria, a process which can be seen as a continuation of the self-policing trend that has had a long and turbulent history in black American writing and is best understood as a reflexive communal response to the ubiquitous white gaze.
The analytical part then proceeds from that premise in order to examine a representative section of short fiction by Charles Richard Johnson, an African American writer and critic, graphic artist and screenwriter, philosophy professor and practicing Buddhist, who ranks among the most articulate and erudite public advocates of nonpartisan black writing in America.
The aim is not to demonstrate that Charles Johnson the writer does not abide by the non-partisan tenets promoted by Charles Johnson the scholar and critic. Remedial stage of black ideological writing Modernist contestations of communal vigilance The black mountain versus white molehill In order to ascertain the tendentious nature of the stories, we will use two basic methodological prisms, each reflecting one defining feature of African American writing.
The selfvigilant mechanism will be analyzed as a general theme and also in its typical rhetorical demonstrations, namely the exegetical and exhortative stance, expressed either towards other characters within the stories or towards the presumed readership.
The feature of racial representation will be assessed with regards to the most typical ideological typologies in early African American writing. A biological or hereditary prism generates the dichotomy of derogatory essentialism vs.
A sociological prism generates the dichotomy of assimilationism vs. The classification tool used to this end will be the dichotomy between tendentious and autonomous art as synthesized from ostensive definitions in Theodor 1 Charles Johnson, Being and Race: Black Writing Since Bloomington: Indiana University Press, This dissertation straddles literary history, cursory sociological overview and close-up literary analysis, which is why the main interpretive prism will also be complemented by auxiliary theory and terminology.
Some of this theory will also seek to provide partial interpretive grounding pertaining to African American fiction Marxist countercultural view of the development of pluralistic democracy, mimesisothers are only used as analogies that carry limited interpretive information Derridean pharmakon.
This auxiliary theory will also be briefly introduced within this introductory section so that it can be later referred to in a more offhand manner, thus eliminating digressions from the argument at hand. The term Panoption has come to stand for the ubiquitous normalizing public gaze as theorized by Michel Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish.
The crucial or defining aspect of this mechanism resides in the fact that a group or community is kept in check by a selfdisciplining reflex which is maintained regardless of whether the presumed monitoring gaze is actually present or not. Jeremy Bentham conceived this prison as a physical entity, yet it actually yields itself to Foucauldian abstraction quite easily, because it was clearly born out of the neoclassical conviction that communal gaze sometimes hardening into law enforcement is here for a good reason, because it keeps people from giving in to their brutish natures.
This is also the basic line of argument pursued by Michel Foucault in his seminal work Discipline and Punish, where the physical prison concept is re-fashioned as a metaphor. Considering the fact that Bentham pitched his idea to the English authorities as a profit-making prison system, we may see the principle as inherently oppressive and elitist.
Bahmueller, The National Charity Company: Jeremy Bentham's Silent Revolution Berkeley: University of California Press, The Birth of the Prison, trans.
Alan Sheridan New York: Vintage Books, The narrator goes to the Tombs (the name for the Halls of Justice), and asks to see Bartleby. He finds Bartleby in one of the yards, facing a wall.
The narrator fears that from the windows murderers and thieves are watching. Bartleby acknowledges him, but the narrator's attempts to . Baldwin’s Effects of Narration and Analysis in “Notes of a Native Son” Personal stories and descriptions of major events are narrated throughout James Baldwin’s works as he analyzes the nature of the relationship between white and black America.
Writing tips and writing guidelines for students,case study samples, admission essay examples, book reviews, paper writing tips, college essays, research proposal samples. An analysis of a compassionate narrator and bartlebys problems weather. 2. While the Narrator certainly has some issues to work through regarding communication and standing up for himself, he does have a number of admirable qualities.
Foremost among them is his capacity for sympathy; the Narrator remains rather oddly sympathetic to the enigmatic and frustrating Bartleby throughout the story.
5. Priscilla Wald, a an analysis of a compassionate narrator and bartlebys problems professor of English at Duke University, was motivated to write Contagious by her conviction that an analysis of how the conventions.
Second, Sonny's legal problems problems linked to high levels of shame and.