He flourished in Diyarbakir, now a city part of modern day Turkey. Al-Jazari compiled and completed the description of around different types of mechanical devices, and also gave practical instructions on how to construct them.
He was named after the area in which he was born, al-Jazira—the traditional Arabic name for what was northern Mesopotamia and what is now northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syriabetween the Tigris and the Euphrates. Centuries later, Al-Jazari invented the crankshaft,   which he incorporated with a crank-connecting rod mechanism in his twin-cylinder pump.
It was in these water-raising machines that he introduced his most important ideas and components. Saqiya machines like the ones he described have been supplying water in Damascus since the 13th century up until modern times,  and were in everyday use throughout the medieval Islamic world.
This pump is driven by a water wheel, which drives, through a system of gears, an oscillating slot-rod to which the rods of two pistons are attached.
The pistons work in horizontally opposed cylinders, each provided with valve-operated suction and delivery pipes.
The delivery pipes are joined above the centre of the machine to form a single outlet into the irrigation system. This pump is remarkable for three reasons: The first application of the double-acting principle.
The conversion of rotary to reciprocating motion, via the crank-connecting rod mechanism. This was more advanced than the suction pumps that appeared in 15th-century Europe, which lacked delivery pipes.
It was not, however, any more efficient than a noria commonly used by the Muslim world at the time. The system had water from a lake turn a scoop-wheel and a system of gears which transported jars of water up to a water channel that led to mosques and hospitals in the city.
Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Arab engineers, especially Al-Jazari, as follows: Thus, the greatest contribution the Arabs made, besides preserving, disseminating and building on the work of the Greeks, was the concept of practical application.
This was the key element that was missing in Greek robotic science. The drink was stored in a tank with a reservoir from where the drink drips into a bucket and, after seven minutes, into a cup, after which the waitress appears out of an automatic door serving the drink.
It features a female humanoid automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the female automaton refills the basin. Rosheim describes it as follows: When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel!
This operation was achieved through his innovative use of hydraulic switching. Professor Noel Sharkey has argued that it is quite likely that it was an early programmable automata and has produced a possible reconstruction of the mechanism; it has a programmable drum machine with pegs cams that bump into little levers that operated the percussion.
The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around. Fowler, the automata were a "robot band" which performed "more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection.
These included a portable water-powered scribe clockwhich was a meter high and half a meter wide, reconstructed successfully at the Science Museum London in   Al-Jazari also invented monumental water-powered astronomical clocks which displayed moving models of the Sun, Moon, and stars.
Candle clocks According to Donald Routledge Hill, al-Jazari described the most sophisticated candle clocks known to date.
Wax collected in the indentation and could be removed periodically so that it did not interfere with steady burning. The bottom of the candle rested in a shallow dish that had a ring on its side connected through pulleys to a counterweight.
As the candle burned away, the weight pushed it upward at a constant speed. The automata were operated from the dish at the bottom of the candle.
No other candle clocks of this sophistication are known. It was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time in this case, a humanoid robot striking the cymbal and a mechanical robotic bird chirping and the first water clock to accurately record the passage of the temporal hours to match the uneven length of days throughout the year.
It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits, and an innovative feature of the device was a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart, and caused automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour.
Yet another innovative feature of the device was five robotic musicians who automatically play music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a water wheel.
These included geared clocks and a portable water-powered scribe clock, which was a meter high and half a meter wide. The scribe with his pen was synonymous to the hour hand of a modern clock. Miniature paintings Alongside his accomplishments as an inventor and engineer, al-Jazari was also an accomplished artist.
In The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, he gave instructions of his inventions and illustrated them using miniature paintings, a medieval style of Islamic art.Scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, craftsman and artist Al-Jazari featured on Dick and Dom's "Absolute Genius", Wednesday 26th February at pm, CBBC.
In a bid to engage pre-school children in the sciences, the BBC launched its second series of the CBBC programme, “Absolute Genius”. Nov 17, · Case Application – Al Jazira: The Genius Inventor (Chapter 3, pp.
) The Hot Weather Air conditioning is one of the most crucial appliances in almost all homes and businesses in the Arab world. The Saudi Arabian climate can be characterized as a desert climate, with wide fluctuations in day and night temperatures. Al-Jazari (–); was a prominent kurdish polymath: an Islamic scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, craftsman, artist, mathematician and astronomer from Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia, who lived during the Islamic Golden Age (Middle Ages).
Al-Jazari (–); was a prominent kurdish polymath: an Islamic scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, craftsman, artist, mathematician and astronomer from Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia, who lived during the Islamic Golden Age (Middle Ages).
Nov 17, · Case Application – Al Jazira: The Genius Inventor (Chapter 3, pp. ) The Hot Weather Air conditioning is one of the most crucial appliances in almost all homes and businesses in the Arab world.
The Saudi Arabian climate can be characterized as a desert climate, with wide fluctuations in day and night temperatures. Scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, craftsman and artist Al-Jazari featured on Dick and Dom's "Absolute Genius", Wednesday 26th February at pm, CBBC.
In a bid to engage pre-school children in the sciences, the BBC launched its second series of the CBBC programme, “Absolute Genius”.