From colonial times, African Americans arrived in large numbers as slaves and lived primarily on plantations in the South. In slave and free blacks together comprised about one-fifth of the U.
Three Worlds, Three Views: Yet all residents of the region shared two important traits. First, they lived and worked in a natural environment unlike any other in the American colonies. Second, like humans everywhere, their presence on the landscape had profound implications for the natural world.
Exploring the ecological transformation of the colonial South offers an opportunity to examine the ways in which three distinct cultures—Native American, European, and African—influenced and shaped the environment in a fascinating part of North America.
The Native American World Like natives elsewhere in North America, those in the South practiced shifting seasonal subsistence, altering their diets and food gathering techniques to conform to the changing seasons.
In spring, a season which brought massive runs of shad, alewives, herring, and mullet from the ocean into the rivers, Indians in Florida and elsewhere along the Atlantic coastal plain relied on fish taken with nets, spears, or hooks and lines.
In autumn and winter—especially in the piedmont and uplands—the natives turned more to deer, bear, and other game animals for sustenance. Because they required game animals in quantity, Indians often set light ground fires to create brushy edge habitats and open areas in southern forests that attracted deer and other animals to well-defined hunting grounds.
The natives also used fire to drive deer and other game into African slaves and indentured servants essay where the animals might be easily dispatched. To clear farmland, the natives used fire and stone axes to remove smaller brush and timber.
They then stripped the bark a process known as girdling from larger trees so that they sprouted no leaves and eventually died. Native farmers primarily women then planted corn, beans, and squash together in hills beneath the dead and dying trees.
Farming seems to have allowed native populations to increase in the millennium before European contact. Some of the larger native cultures probably numbered in the tens of thousands. Old fields then had to lie fallow until they recovered some fertility and could be planted again.
In addition, the natives had to store seeds, manage harvests, and distribute surplus crops, all of which required complex social and political organization. And, as several southeastern cultures seem to have discovered, a diet too rich in corn led to nutritional deficiencies and poor health.
Thus, agriculture had to be blended proper proportion with hunting, fishing, and gathering wild foods in order to ensure survival. Lean times were inevitable. However, they did not regard land as property that could be transferred in perpetuity to another individual or group.
Native culture also did not encourage the unrestricted accumulation of land or other material goods. For most southern Indians, an ideal chieftain or leader was one who regularly distributed great stores of food, animal skins, or other valuable items within the community.
Generosity—not individual wealth—conferred status, fostered allegiances, and helped maintain the communal good. Long before the arrival of Europeans, native people traded items between themselves and with more distant cultures.
Trade, however, was more than simply an economic enterprise. Before any items changed hands, traders often ate together, smoked tobacco, or practiced other rituals designed to indicate friendship. In such an atmosphere of hospitality the exchange of goods became a means for expressing good will, a vehicle for negotiation, and a way to engage in diplomacy.
Native people believed that everything in nature—plants and animals as well as inanimate objects such as rocks and shells—possessed spiritual power. Consequently, those who hunted animals, farmed, or gathered wild foods had to observe certain guidelines and practice particular rituals designed to demonstrate respect for the spiritual world.
One of the most prominent rituals was the Green Corn Ceremony, which coincided with the ripening of maize. Modern Americans sometimes regard such rituals as evidence that Indians practiced conservation or had an innate understanding of ecology.
Though such practices might indeed promote sound environmental practices, they could also have the opposite effect. In all likelihood, their native belief system served a more subtle and practical function. In the South—as elsewhere in North America—Indians had to rely on and therefore destroy plants and animals that they regarded as spiritual kin.
The various rituals allowed them to do so without violating a sacred relationship between people and the natural world.
The native world was not a place of ecological perfection. When bad weather led to poor crops, natives had to rely more on game and wild plants.Initially, African slave's and indentured servants were of the same status, however as time progressed the status of these two groups changed drastically.
The cause of this change is ultimately more complex than those in the seventeenth century could have ever imagined. During the greater part of /5(9).
Both slaves and indentured servants were treated badly, however, black slaves were much more expensive and had to work for life, whereas indentured servants worked for a reward.
Both the indentured servants and black slaves did very similar. Get an answer for 'Compare and contrast the lives of slaves and indentured servants.' and find homework help for other History questions at eNotes. Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in Labor Systems of Early America Native American Labor.
A short guide to the tribes of North America (site also has a bibliography); Richard Hakluyt Discourse of Western Planting (). indentured servants and the journey from Africa for slaves by using primary sources. The student will compare the lives of slaves and indentured servants using.