Update, September 17 Preliminary draft of part I of a book on fiscal theory. This will be revised, but it is still potentially interesting if you want to read about fiscal theory.
Her research centers on issues related to media, gender, culture, and health. Previous publications have addressed athlete representation and public health in sports nutrition marketing, and the dangers of sports nutrition supplements. Her current research focuses on risk management and concussions among female equestrians.
Although closely associated with male competitive sports, images of female athletes are increasingly employed in the marketing of these products. This article utilizes a social semiotic approach to analyze portrayals of female athletes in sports nutrition packaging, websites, and commercials.
In a marked departure from televised sports coverage, in which this marketing is often embedded, results highlight increased visibility for women, reduced sexualization, and significant variation in the representation of physically active female bodies.
At the same time, a number of semiotic devices are employed by marketers to preserve masculine hegemony in the sporting realm. These include the marginalization of female athletes in terms of numbers and, in the case of commercials, time onscreen.
Other devices include clothing, setting, the image act and the gaze, power and the visual angle, the absence of voice, and decontextualization, rendering female athletes stereotypes, rather than individuals. Female athletes are also often presented in ways that emphasize their sexuality 42physical attractiveness 52and social roles outside of sport, such as wives and mothers Nor are women allowed to appear other than heterosexual, or they risk negative commentary, if not outright exclusion Soccer, which is not associated with masculinity in the U.
Tennis, a sport where women have excelled and received increased endorsements and prize money, is also featured, but with coverage often focused on better looking, rather than better performing players Hence, Anna Kournikova, who has never won a major tournament, was one of only six women ranked among the most important people in sports Generally speaking, much of the media discourse involving sport either excludes women or presents them in ways that reinforce gender stereotypes.
Media visibility or lack thereof has consequences in the real world. Participation in sports builds self-esteem, develops social skills, and allows girls to value their bodies for what they can do, as opposed to what they look like Staying physically active also decreases the likelihood of being overweight or obese At present, it is male sports, and its star athletes, who are far more visible in sports media, normalizing sport for men and leaving women largely out of the picture Volner, personal communication, January 10, Sports nutrition marketing is often part of sports coverage, featuring star athletes, celebrities on and off the field, who possess considerable cultural capital in contemporary society Representations of women in this marketing genre are therefore important to examine, as they stand to influence millions of viewers.
Further, as this advertising relies on promoting the illusion of improved athletic performance to sell its products, female athletes are far more likely to be represented in ways that emphasize their athletic talent, increasing their appeal as positive role models in sport Yet, with the exception of studies of athlete endorsements of unhealthy foods 33including sports nutrition products 13sports nutrition advertising remains largely unexamined with regard to gender.
The wealth of research regarding sports nutrition consists of studies of its efficacy, safety, and use among athletes at different levels of competition in different sports 15,51as well as unfounded performance claims in its advertising This research was aimed at partially addressing this gap.
In this case, the imagery is specific to the world of sport and associated with foods and beverages used and advertised in this cultural context.
Images of athletes, those with prestige in the world of sport 11are employed to appeal to viewers.
What is challenging in the case of sports nutrition is that female athletes do not have the same prestige in the male-dominated world of sport, yet these products are marketed to everyone. This puts manufacturers in the position of wanting to include images of successful female athletes in their advertising, but to do so in ways that do not overtly challenge the status quo of sports media, or they risk losing male customers.
Although sports nutrition marketers avoid overtly sexualized imagery that women and female athletes find offensive 43most choose to play it safe, employing a number of semiotic devices to subtly keep female athletes in their place.David Hume (—) “Hume is our Politics, Hume is our Trade, Hume is our Philosophy, Hume is our Religion.” This statement by nineteenth century philosopher James Hutchison Stirling reflects the unique position in intellectual thought held by Scottish philosopher David Hume.
Part of Hume’s fame and importance owes to his . Part of our engagement with the broader community includes disseminating our results in technical conferences, journals, and NVIDIA technical reports.
Research is our business. With an unwavering focus on our missions, scientists and engineers at PNNL deliver science and technology. We conduct basic research that advances the frontiers of science.
Preliminary versions of economic research. The Time-Varying Effect of Monetary Policy on Asset Prices. Pascal Paul • Federal Reserve Bank of San FranciscoEmail: [email protected] First online version: November Psychology research results. Below is a list of sites displaying results of research conducted within the School of Psychology, both by staff and students.
This paper examines event tourism as a field of study and area of professional practice updating the previous review article published in