Addiction is fundamentally a problem of drug or alcohol consumption. Scientific Faith Commitment to objective science guarantees that the foundational elements of the Official View are correct and certain. Medical Promise Medical research will soon find an effective treatment for addiction, which will probably be pharmacological. Please note that none of these six foundational elements of the Official View were discovered by high-tech neuroscience.
Theories of Addiction — What is the Meaning of Addiction? An Analysis of the Theories of Addiction In many cases, addiction theorists have now progressed beyond stereotyped disease conceptions of alcoholism or the idea that narcotics are inherently addictive to anyone who uses them.
The two major areas of addiction theory—those concerning alcohol and narcotics—have had a chance to merge, along with theorizing about overeating, smoking, and even running and interpersonal addictions. Yet this new theoretical synthesis is less than meets the eye: It mainly recycles discredited notions while including piecemeal modifications that make the theories marginally more realistic in their descriptions of addictive behavior.
These theories are described and evaluated in this chapter as they apply to all kinds of addictions. They are organized into sections on genetic theories inherited mechanisms that cause or predispose people to be addictedmetabolic theories biological, cellular adaptation to chronic exposure to drugsconditioning theories built on the idea of the cumulative reinforcement from drugs or other activitiesand adaptation theories those exploring the social and psychological functions performed by drug effects.
While most addiction theorizing has been too unidimensional and mechanistic to begin to account for addictive behavior, adaptation theories have typically had a different limitation. In this way drugs are seen as a way to cope, however dysfunctionally, with personal and social needs and changing situational demands.
Yet these adaptation models, while pointing in the right direction, fail because they do not directly explain the pharmacological role the substance plays in addiction.
They are often considered—even by those who formulate them—as adjuncts to biological models, as in the suggestion that the addict uses a substance to gain a specific effect until, inexorably and irrevocably, physiological processes take hold of the individual.
At the same time their purview is not ambitious enough not nearly so ambitious as that of some biological and conditioning models to incorporate non-narcotic or non-drug involvements. They also miss the opportunity, readily available at the social-psychological level of analysis, to integrate individual and cultural experiences.
Cigarette smoking, alcoholism, and overweight—like divorce, child abuse and religion—run in families. This addictive inheritance has been most studied in the case of alcoholism.
Studies endeavoring to separate genetic from environmental factors, such as those in which adopted-away offspring of alcoholics were compared to adopted children with nonalcoholic biological parents, have claimed a three to four times greater alcoholism rate for those whose biologic parents were alcoholic Goodwin et al.
Vaillant l approvingly cited the Goodwin et al. Since these subjects were reared by their natural families, however, this finding does not distinguish effects of alcoholic environment from inherited dispositions.
Vaillant did find that subjects with alcoholic relatives they did not live with were twice as likely to become alcoholic as subjects who had no alcoholic relatives at all. The chief of these is ethnicity: Irish Americans in this Boston sample were seven times as likely to be alcohol dependent as were those of Mediterranean descent.
Controlling for such large ethnicity effects would surely reduce the 2 to 1 ratio for subjects with alcoholic relatives compared to those without in alcoholism substantially even as other potential environmental factors that lead to alcoholism besides ethnicity would still remain to be controlled for.
Vaillant reported two other tests of genetic causality in his sample. Proposing genetic mechanisms in alcoholism on the basis of concordance rates does not provide a model of addiction. What are these mechanisms through which alcoholism is inherited and translated into alcoholic behavior?
Intriguingly, controlled-drinking theorists like Heather and Robertson propose exceptions to their own analyses: While it is certainly a fascinating possibility, no research of any type supports this suggestion.
Vaillant found that self-reports by AA members that they immediately succumbed to alcoholism the first time they drank were false and that severe drinking problems developed over periods of years and decades.
The exceptions to this generalization were psychopaths whose drinking problems were components of overall abnormal lifestyles and behavior patterns from an early age. However, these kinds of alcoholics showed a greater tendency to outgrow alcoholism by moderating their drinking Goodwin et al.
Prospective studies of those from alcoholic families also have failed to reveal early alcoholic drinking Knop et al. Findings like these have led genetic theorists and researchers instead to propose that the inherited vulnerability to alcoholism takes the form of some probabilistically greater risk of developing drinking problems.
In this view a genetic tendency—such as one that dictates a drinker will have an overwhelming response to alcohol—does not cause alcoholism.
The emphasis is instead on such biological abnormalities as the inability to discriminate blood alcohol level BALwhich leads alcoholics to show less effect from drinking and to drink more without sensing their condition Goodwin ; Schuckit Alcoholism is the most serious form of problem drinking, and describes a strong, often uncontrollable, desire to drink.
Sufferers of alcoholism will often place drinking above all other obligations, including work and family, and may build up a physical tolerance or experience withdrawal symptoms if they stop. In alcoholism, relapse refers to a patient beginning to drink alcohol again after a period of avoiding alcohol.
Tolerance A phenomenon during which a drinker becomes physically accustomed to a particular quantity of alcohol, and requires ever-increasing quantities in order to obtain the same effects.
The Rise and Fall of the Official View of Addiction Bruce K.
Good finds! I will surely include these in the list of treatments. The fact that there are several completely different natural approaches to relief and/or recovery, confirms that we are looking at a complex disorder that manifests (and cures) itself in different ways from person to person. Provides a vast amount of information and resources on the subject of Alcoholics Anonymous experience the history lest we forget! Alcoholism is characterised by an increased tolerance to alcohol–which means that an individual can consume more alcohol–and physical dependence on alcohol, which makes it hard for an individual to control their consumption. The physical dependency caused by alcohol can lead to an affected individual having a very strong urge to drink srmvision.comncy: million / % adults ().
Alexander, Professor Emeritus Simon Fraser University Revised July 3 Confession and Plea to the High Court in the Field of Addiction. To get your Free "14 Tips," please provide your name and email to join my mailing list and monthly blog. Check your spam folder, and email me if you don't get an email confirmation.
Good finds! I will surely include these in the list of treatments. The fact that there are several completely different natural approaches to relief and/or recovery, confirms that we are looking at a complex disorder that manifests (and cures) itself in different ways from person to person.
An Analysis of the Theories of Addiction. In many cases, addiction theorists have now progressed beyond stereotyped disease conceptions of alcoholism or the idea that narcotics are inherently addictive to anyone who uses them.